By L. M. Jackman, S. Sternhell, D. H. R. Barton and W. Doering (Auth.)
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Extra info for Applications of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Organic Chemistry
1-2-8. f. (100 Hz). In practice, it is possible to modulate simultaneously at more than one frequency. As we are only interested in the relative positions of resonance absorptions in a spectrum (p. 12) we wish to measure the position of a given absorption relative to a reference or control absorption which is observed at a constant field-to-frequency ratio. The control absorption can be derived from a separate sample (external lock system) or from a reference compound added to the sample under investigation (internal lock system).
The spacing of side bands is symmetric about the main band and is equal to the spinning frequency or some integral multiple thereof. Spinning side bands can therefore be identified by comparison of spectra obtained by using different spinning frequencies. Very high spinning frequencies can cause the formation of a vortex which may extend into the operative region of the sample. This is to be avoided since it can cause a serious reduction in resolution. (iii) R A D I O F R E Q U E N C Y PHASE A common source of distortion of absorption signals is incorrect adjustment of the phase sensitive detector (p.
One of the great advantages of field-frequency locked systems or very stable permanent magnets is that the sweep (either field or frequency) can be ganged to the Z-arm of an XY recorder so that the position of the X-arm bears a direct relation to the field/ frequency ratio and hence to the resonance frequencies of nuclei. (iv) T H E D E T E C T O R The passage of radiofrequency radiation through the magnetized sample is associated with two phenomena, namely absorption and dispersion. r. as in optics.