By Robert Schütze
Half I. ecu legislation - construction: 1. Union associations; 2. Union laws; three. Union competences; four. primary rights; half II. eu legislations - Enforcement: five. Direct impact; 6. (Legal) supremacy; 7. nationwide activities; eight. eu activities; half III. ecu legislation - Substance: nine. inner industry: items; 10. inner industry: people; eleven. pageant legislations: cartels; 12. festival legislation: abuse.
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Additional info for An introduction to European law
From the very beginning, the Treaties had instituted a system of weighted votes. , Article 11 (4). Important examples of sensitive political issues still requiring unanimity are foreign affairs (see Article 31 TEU), and “the harmonisation of legislation concerning turnover taxes, excise duties and other forms of indirect taxation” (see Article 113 TFEU). Article 238 (1) TFEU. For example: Article 150 TFEU. Most matters that allow for simple majority are (internal) procedural or institutional matters.
For a long time it followed, in rank, behind the Council and the Commission. Its original powers were indeed minimal. It was an “auxiliary” organ that was to assist the institutional duopoly of Council and Commission. This minimal role gradually increased from the 1970s onwards. Today the Parliament constitutes – with the Council – a chamber of the Union legislature. Directly elected by the European citizens,4 Parliament constitutes not only the most 3 4 For an analysis of the three other Union institutions, see R.
27 This deﬁnition distinguishes 20 21 22 24 26 27 This condition had not been part of the original 1976 Election Act, but was added through a 2002 amendment. This amendment was considered necessary as, hitherto, the British majority voting system “could alone alter the entire political balance in the European Parliament” (F. , The European Parliament (Harper Publishing, 2005), 17). ). , Article 3). Both alternatives are provided for in Article 223 (1) TFEU. 23 Article 22 (2) TFEU. Article 20 ECSC.