By Philip Arestis, Malcolm Sawyer (eds.)
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Additional info for Alternative Perspectives on Economic Policies in the European Union
The constellation for the European financial sector is now rather similar to that of 10 years ago: increasing financial assets piling up in an environment of slow growth, weak domestic demand and hence little stimulus for productive investment. It is a precarious situation with increased risks of investor short-termism, financial speculation, herd behaviour and the build-up of financial bubbles. 7 Cost-income-ratio of commercial banks in major OECD countries, 1992–2001 Source: OECD, Bank Profitability.
Special attention is given to the EU financial integration policy as it has evolved since the late 1990s. Lastly, Section 4 presents proposals for progressive European policies for the financial sector and financial markets. 2. 1. Long-term trends: Weak growth, high unemployment, redistribution from bottom to top The long-term development of the EU – at least of the major continental countries which determine the overall statistical picture – can be characterised by three decisive features: declining growth, rising unemployment and a marked redistribution of income and wealth from the bottom to the top.
These two arguments relate directly to the issues of the proposed Constitution: (i) the proposed Constitution is no more than a ‘tidying up’ exercise with administrative changes to ease decision-making in an enlarged EU and (ii) many features of the Philip Arestis and Malcolm Sawyer 33 proposed European Constitution do not represent changes from previous Treaties, such as those of Amsterdam and Nice. The latter argument, we argue, is particularly relevant in the cases of the SGP and the ‘independence’ of the ECB.