By Zev Levin, William R. Cotton
This booklet experiences present wisdom at the courting among aerosols and precipitation achieving the Earth's floor. It encompasses a record of thoughts which may support to farther increase wisdom during this area.
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Extra resources for Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation A Scientific Review
1967, 1968, 1972; Magono and Lee 1973; Hobbs 1969, 1974). The effect is greatest in clouds with broad drop-size distributions (Koenig 1963; Mossop et al. 1968, 1972; Hobbs 1974). Some explanations or hypotheses that have been proposed to account for the high ice particle concentrations observed in some clouds are as follows: Ice multiplication by fracturing of fragile ice crystals, which may breakup during collision with each other. (Vardiman 1978). Fragmentation of large drops during freezing.
Plots Courtesy of S. Kinne, MPI, Hamburg, Germany 1 Introduction 11 these aerosols are given in Chapters 3 and 4. The main natural sources are divisible into soil dust, sea salt, marine biogenic sulphur, terrestrial biogenic and boreal biomass burning, while anthropogenic sources are those from industry, fossil fuel combustion and human-activity related biomass burning. Each aerosol type has its own characteristic sources, size distribution and effectiveness as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN).
Note how the droplets that have been activated (im/M5=10À15, 10À16, 10À17) approach a monodispersed size distribution after just 100 s. e. $60 m above cloud base). The variation with time of the supersaturation of the air parcel is also shown (dashed line). Adapted with modification from Howell (1949) with permission of the American Meteorological Society the rate of increase in the radius of a droplet growing by condensation is inversely proportional to the drop radius, therefore, the rate of growth decreases with time.