Download A Theory of Philosophical Fallacies by Leonard Nelson, Fernando Leal, D. G. Carus PDF

By Leonard Nelson, Fernando Leal, D. G. Carus

Presented as a Vorlesung within the German philosophical culture, this e-book offers the main specific account of Nelson’s approach to argument research, celebrated by means of many luminaries corresponding to Karl Popper. It used to be written in 1921 against the relativistic, subjectivistic and nihilistic developments of Nelson’s time. The booklet includes an exposition of a mode that may be a additional improvement of Kant’s transcendental dialectics, by means of an software to the severe research of arguments via many well-known thinkers, together with Bentham, Mill, Poincaré, Leibniz, Hegel, Einstein, Bergson, Rickert, Simmel, Brentano, Stammler, Jellinek, Dingler, and Meinong. The publication offers a common idea of philosophical argumentation as obvious from the point of view of the common fallacies dedicated via anyone arguing philosophically, no matter if specialist philosophers or philosophical laypeople. even supposing the character of philosophy and philosophical argumentation is without doubt one of the so much recurrent gadgets of mirrored image for philosophers, this booklet represents the 1st try out at a common concept of philosophical fallacy. in accordance with Nelson, it truly is within the form of fake dilemmas that error in reasoning constantly emerge, and fake dilemmas are continuously the results of an analogous mechanism--the unwitting alternative of 1 proposal for another.

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The feeling I am talking about here has a deeper significance. It is a feeling for what is true, an intimation of truth. This feeling for the truth is something different from a feeling for the needs of the spirit of the times. Yet the question is: what is the importance of reasoning for philosophy? What is the relationship between reasoning and a truth that expresses itself in the form of feeling? It might be thought that feeling is enough, and thus that we do not require reasoning. This is based on the view that feeling can be taken to be a kind of intuition, which is all we are supposed to need to determine what is true in philosophy.

1007/978-3-319-20783-4_4 35 36 Lecture III For an unbiased judgment it is immediately clear that where there is a mistake in the fundamental premises of a philosophical system the consistency in the structure of the system can only serve to transmit this mistake to the entire system and so render it useless and without value in any of its conclusions. In contrast, an inconsistency can preserve the validity of the results of a philosopher who proceeds from false premises, for that inconsistency can help eliminate the original error.

E. a method of abstract reasoning, as soon as we leave the judgment of particulars behind and look for the general principle. The history of philosophy is concerned with seeking an increasingly satisfying solution to the task of securing the general principles for all possible judgments of 32 Lecture II particulars. For this reason, real progress in the history of philosophy takes place in the dialectical field. In judging specific facts philosophers do not disagree amongst themselves nor with the judgments of everyday human understanding.

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